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Conceptual UMH Framework
Figure: Conceptual framework of the relationship between factors in the urban environment and common mental disorder outcomes
This framework conceptualises urban mental health phenomena from a complex systems perspective. Meta factors (grey box) listed on the left are considered to have a dynamic impact on the urban environment and its inhabitants at large. Factors are categorized as urban factors (blue box; e.g. air pollution or built environment), social factors (green box; e.g. social cohesion) or individual factors (yellow box; e.g. individual demographic, psychological, or neurobiological characteristics). Oscillating arrows between the factors and common mental disorder (CMD) symptoms signify the different temporal scales across which factors can assert their effect. CMDs are represented as symptom clusters (red circle) connected by bridge symptoms. Feedback arrows represent the possibility of feedback from CMD symptoms to explanatory factors, which can also occur over different timescales.
This figure is derived from the the UMH Position paper that was published in Lancet Psychiatry in 2021.